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2021 IAI Conference Presentations 
August 2021 - Nashville, Tennessee USA     
      

   
OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee Progress Update
Presented by Joshua Connelly, CLPE
4 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
This presentation addresses how OSAC is structured and how it interacts with other entities, including Standards Development Organizations (SDOs). The presentation discusses current documents the FRS has been working on, including best practice recommendations and standards. Click here to visit the OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee website.       
    
   

   
Beyond Mayfield: Wrongful Convictions Due to Fingerprint Errors and Lessons Learned
Presented by Hillary Daluz
6 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
High-profile erroneous fingerprint identifications such as Mayfield and McKie have illuminated limitations of the fingerprint examination discipline and inspired progress. But did you know that Mayfield and McKie are not the only cases of wrongful conviction? Are you prepared to address these cases on the witness stand? This lecture goes beyond Mayfield and McKie and discusses lessons learned to mitigate future errors.        
       
    
   

Don’t be Caught with Your Pants Down!!!
Presented by Eliot Springer
6 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
With accreditation in place, and all its challenges, are our forensic laboratories prepared to expedite or meet, in a timely and efficiently manner, the challenges of handling cases in a life and death situation? This question and challenge arose from real life situations. In one case, a ten year old boy disappeared while walking home from his first day at day camp. After a day and a half, parts from the boy’s dismembered body were found in the suspects freezer and in a dumpster. In a conversation a few years later with a detective from that case, it was stated that he felt that only five hours separated between being able to find and save the boy and him being murdered. In another case, a soldier was kidnapped by terrorists and a time - sensitive ultimatum was given for either freeing or executing the soldier. Evidence was sent to the lab that might have assisted in helping save the soldier.        
       
    
    
Curriculum Vitae:Make Your First Impression Your Best Impression
Presented by Hillary Daluz
6 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
What is a curriculum vitae (CV), and why do you need one? The CV is a scientific resume that serves as the autobiography for your professional life. Although a CV is a great way to introduce yourself to future employers, it is also used in the courtroom. In this interactive lecture, you will learn how to create a CV that will set you up for success in the courtroom and throughout your career.        
       
    
    

Mitigating Bias -Lessons Learned: An Interactive Experience Featuring Lady Whistledown, The Mandalorian and David Rose
Presented by Hillary Daluz and Stacie Calkins, CLPE
4 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
Bias has been a hot topic in the forensic sciences for the past decade. But what is bias, and how do we mitigate bias in casework? This presentation addresses real-world situations in which bias might affect the results of forensic analysis. Methods for mitigating bias in forensic examinations are discussed.   
       
    
    

Supplemental Verifications (Latent Print Similarities and Differences)
Presented by Meredith Coon, CLPE
4 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
This presentation reviews the Supplemental Verification process for Complex prints used by the Baltimore Police Department (Baltimore, Maryland, USA). All identifications require visual documentation, and the markups on complex prints is displayed and discussed for their similarities and differences. The presentation also addresses some of the pitfalls and benefits of Supplemental Verification.       
       
    
    
Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Black Box Study
Presented by Austin Hicklin, PhD
4 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
Although the analysis of bloodstain pattern evidence left at crime scenes relies on the expert opinions of bloodstain pattern analysts, the accuracy and reproducibility of these conclusions have never been rigorously evaluated at a large scale. We investigated conclusions made by 75 practicing bloodstain pattern analysts on 192 bloodstain patterns selected to be broadly representative of operational casework, resulting in 33,005 responses to prompts and 1,760 short text responses. Our results show that conclusions were often erroneous and often contradicted other analysts. On samples with known causes, 11.2% of responses were erroneous. The results show limited reproducibility of conclusions: 7.8% of responses contradicted other analysts. The disagreements with respect to the meaning and usage of BPA terminology and classifications suggest a need for improved standards. Both semantic differences and contradictory interpretations contributed to errors and disagreements, which could have serious implications if they occurred in casework. 
 
Paul Kish, Kevin Winer, and Noblis conducted the study under a grant from the U.S. National Institute of Justice (NIJ).      

       
    
    
Why are automated biometric identification systems (ABIS) still not communicating?
Presented by Michael French, CLPE, CBP
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
Biometric transmission standards have been mature for decades, yet there is limited regional or peer-to-peer ABIS interoperability in the US. The slides address how we got here and what we can do to promote widespread interoperability. The slides also review the ABIS interoperability white paper being prepared by the IAI Biometric Information System Subcommittee and is intended to gather feedback from impacted users prior to finalization.       
       
    
    
OSAC Facial Identification Subcommittee & FISWG Update
Presented by Lora Sims
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
This presentation provides an overview of recent activities of the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC) Subcommittee on Facial Identification (FI). It focuses on the current work of OSAC FI Subcommittee and the Facial Identification Scientific Working Group (FISWG) in relation to OSAC FI.       
       
    
    
Multidisciplinary Collaborative Exercises
Presented by Aldo Mattei, PhD
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
Historically, collaborative exercises have tended to be very discipline specific. An EU funded project, carried on by DNA, Latent Print, Questioned Document, and Handwriting ENFSI WGs aimed to run a Collaborative Exercise (CE) that addressed multiple forensic disciplines involving significant interaction between laboratory-based practices. Processes involved in developing this CE will be described, mentioning some of the significant issues that impacted on the development progress. The collected results of the 34 participating laboratories is addressed, as well as suggested working practices to maximize forensic evidence.     
       
    
   
OSAC Facial Identification Subcommittee & FISWG Update
Presented by Lora Sims
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
These slides provide an overview of recent activities of the Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC) Subcommittee on Facial Identification (FI) and also the Facial Identification Scientific Working Group (FISWG) in relation to OSAC FI.     
    
 
 
An Eye on Iris
Presented by Bethany Retton
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference
 
Iris became the newest biometric capability in FBI's Next Generation Identification (NGI) system on September 29, 2020. This lecture provides a high-level explanation of what the iris is, how it is used to effect identifications, and how it could be useful in forensic applications.        
     
    
        
Outside the Textbook and Into the World of the Expert
Presented by Nancy Kochis and Nicole Fundell
3 August 2021 at the IAI Conference
 
Due to the popularity of crime scene shows, students have become more interested in learning about how crimes are really solved. The goal of this presentation is to make experts aware they can impact the lives of young adults by speaking to them at the high school level. This collaboration between students and experts has led to many students pursuing a career in forensics. Students realize the opportunities are endless!.         
    
    
       
Proficiency Testing: If you Can’t Stand the Heat, Get Out of the Kitchen!
Chef Ron Smith
Presented by "Chef" Ron Smith, CLPE
2 August 2021 at the IAI Conference

 
For years, ISO accredited agencies have been required to participate in a program of proficiency testing that seeks, in part, to evaluate a laboratory’s performance. Accrediting bodies are required in turn, to take account of the participation and performance of accredited laboratories. For some agencies this is seen as a bothersome concept and one that meets with disdain by many practitioners. For that reason, PT providers have been encouraged, by market pressure, to keep the tests straightforward and on the easier side of the difficulty equation. This, my good friends and colleagues, has led to our profession being appropriately chastised by those who seek to question the results of our examinations. It is time to face the fact that we must, as forensic practitioners, be willing to incorporate proficiency testing samples which DO fairly represent what we see in actual casework.
    
   
   
Organization of Scientific Area Committees (OSAC) General Update
Presented by Stephen Greene, CLPE
2 August 2021 at the IAI Conference
 
Stephen Greene, IAI Board Member and IAI representative to the Forensic Science Standards Board (FSSB) of the OSAC provided an overview and update of the activities and goals of the OSAC.     
    
   
   
When is Their Best Not Good Enough?
Presented by Matthew Marvin, CLPE, CFWE
2 August 2021 at the IAI Conference
 
Many agencies use visual acuity examinations (also known as form blindness testing) when hiring new examiners. But why? Can’t anyone train to be a latent print examiner? The short answer is no; hence the visual acuity exam. But do visual acuity exams really work in determining ability? Can they be used beyond testing for ability to test for individuals with the best abilities? Let’s find out!!

   


     
Congratulations to Eliot Springer, recipient of the International Association for Identification's Dondero Award on 6 August 2021. The Dondero award is the IAI's highest award and has only been presented 26 times since it was established in 1958.  Eliot is the Deputy Director of the New York City Police Laboratory,  
Eliot Springer     

       


      

Click the 2021 IAI Conference images below to see larger versions.         
Photos by Ed German
      
Vendors area
                                          visitors at the IAI Conference
                                          on 2 August 2021   
Vendors area at the IAI Conference on 2 August 2021         
   
   
Just under
                                          1,000 participants at the IAI
                                          Conference opening ceremony on
                                          2 August 2021
Just under 1,000 participants at the IAI Conference opening ceremony on 2 August 2021. Visitors from eight countries outside America where in attendance, including from Italy, Canada, Columbia, Denmark, Germany, Israel, United Arab Emirates, and Switzerland.   
         
         
Busy Staircase filled
                                          with IAI Conference
                                          participants on 2 August 2021   
Busy Staircase filled with IAI Conference participants on 2 August 2021     
       
      
Interior of the Gaylord
                                          Opryland hotel showing a boat
                                          ridge
The interior of the Gaylord Opryland Hotel includes the opportunity for a boat ride as seen here on 2 August 2021.          
     


 

     
Latent Print Examiner Job Openings

   in order by closing date
       in alphabetical order for "open until filled" jobs

     
  
California DOJ, Fresno or Sacramento or Shasta counties, Latent Print Examiner I 
Closes 27 Oct 2021
 
California DOJ, Fresno or Sacramento or Shasta counties, Latent Print Examiner II 
Closes 27 Oct 2021
 
Charleston, SC Police Department -, Latent Print Examiner I or II  *** New ***
Closes 29 Oct 2021
 

Colorado Bureau of Invest., Grand Junction -, Latent Print Examiner I or II  *** New ***
Closes 29 Oct 2021
 
Houston Forensic Science Center - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled

Orlando, FL Police Department - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled

Pinellas County, FL Sheriff's Office - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled

Pinellas County, FL Sheriff's Office - Latent Print Supervisor
Open until filled

   
Santa Ana, CA Police Department - Latent Print Examiner (Part Time)
Open until filled

   
St. Louis Missouri Police Dept - Latent Print Examiner   
Open until filled    

Towson, MD Police Department - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled
   
US Military - Ft. Gillem, GA - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled
   
Worcester, MA Police Department - Latent Print Examiner
Open until filled
      
 
Tenprint Examiner Job Openings
   in order by closing date
       in alphabetical order for "open until filled" jobs

San Diego County, CA Sheriff's Department - Senior Fingerprint Examiner (Tenprint Examiner)
Open until filled
 
Towson, MD Police Department - Fingerprint Technician (Tenprint Examiner)
Open until filled
     

Resources for Latent Print Examiners


You will find an excellent resource portal for all things involving latent prints (and other forensic disciplines) at Brianne Breedlove's Uncover Forensics website. Latent Print Examiner Brianne Breedlove's Uncover Forensics Resources page includes the following and more:

o   Newsletter Subscriptions

o   Journals & Magazines

o   Podcasts

o   Community Forums

·       ...and more...

     

                   

Fingerprint Spoofing Research
  
Prepared by Professor Martin Drahanský and team
Brno University of Technology (BRUT), Faculty of Information Technology
Brno, Czech Republic

On 9 February 2021, Professor Martin Drahanský gave a virtual presentation on behalf of the European Association for Biometrics. The presentation was titled "Fingerprints in Forensic Verifications" and focused primarily on fingerprint spoofing research.  
 
The slides show a variety of artificial fingerprint production methods using a variety of different materials and processes (wax, laser printing, etching, etc.) as well as the generation of realistic artificial live scan fingerprints from a single minutiae (with no image, only from x/y/theta minutiae coordinates). Artificial skin creases, warts and other skin conditions are created, as well as artificial pressure, movement and other distortions which are often introduced by genuine fingers during capacitive, optical, swipe and other live scan processes.
 
The slides also include links to request download permission for the following software developed by the
Brno University of Technology:
 - Fingerprint Image Quality Visualizer
 - Synthetic Fingerprint Damage Simulator and Generator
 
Click here to see future events (and virtual presentations) scheduled by the European Association for Biometrics. Many of the virtual presentations are free of charge.
     
 

      


                   
OSAC FRS Fingerprint Terminology List   
  
                                                                          Version 24 January 2021
  
Are you familiar with the current usage and context of terms and phrases in the OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee's (FRS) standards, guidelines, and best practices documents?
    
This informal list was put in PDF format by FRS member Ed German by leveraging the work of other FRS members.

See OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee Documents and much more online at:
https://www.nist.gov/organization-scientific-area-committees-forensic-science/friction-ridge-subcommittee  
            

        


                   
Two New Latent Print Latent Print Research Publications:   
  
            
1. Hicklin RA, Ulery BT, Ausdemore M, Buscaglia J. “Why do latent fingerprint examiners differ in their conclusions?” Forensic Science International 320, Nov 2020.
 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2020.110542
   
2. Kalka ND, Beachler M, Hicklin RA. “LQMetric: A Latent Fingerprint Quality Metric for Predicting AFIS Performance and Assessing the Value of Latent Fingerprints.” Journal of Forensic Identification 70(4) 443-463, Oct 2020.
                
The above papers are part of a total of 14 publications in the FBI Lab/Noblis latent print quality/black box/white box series of studies:
        
3. Hicklin RA, Ulery BT, Busey TA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Gaze behavior and cognitive states during fingerprint target group localization.” Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 2019 4:12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-019-0160-9    
 
4. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.” Forensic Science International, 275:65-75, June 2017. http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(17)30065-8/
 
5. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.” Data in Brief, 8: 158–190, September 2016. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889892  
 
6. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.” Forensic Science International, 264:89-99, July 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.03.014   

7. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Changes in latent fingerprint examiners’ markup between Analysis and Comparison.” Forensic Science International 247(2014):54-61; Feb 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.11.021
 
8. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.” PLoS ONE 9(11): e110179, Nov 2014. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0110179
 
9. Kalka ND, Hicklin RA. “On relative distortion in fingerprint comparison.” Forensic Science International 244(2014), 78-84, Nov 2014. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.08.007
 
10. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Kiebuzinski GI, Roberts MA, Buscaglia J. “Understanding the sufficiency of information for latent fingerprint value determinations.” Forensic Science International 230(1-3):99-106; July 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.01.012
 
11. Hicklin RA, Buscaglia J, Roberts MA. “Assessing the Clarity of Friction Ridge Impressions.” Forensic Science International 226(1-3):106-17; March 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.12.015
 
12. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Buscaglia J, Roberts MA. “Repeatability and Reproducibility of Decisions by Latent Fingerprint Examiners.” PLoS ONE 7(3), March 2012. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0032800
 
13. Hicklin RA, et al; “Latent Fingerprint Quality: A Survey of Examiners”; Journal of Forensic Identification 61(4), July 2011.
 
14. Ulery BT, Hicklin RA, Buscaglia J, Roberts MA. “Accuracy and Reliability of Forensic Latent Fingerprint Decisions.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108(19), April 2011. https://www.pnas.org/content/108/19/7733
        
 
            


     
NIST has Launched an Updated Organization of Scientific Area Committees. See details at
https://www.nist.gov/news-events/news/2020/10/nist-launches-updated-organization-scientific-area-committees-forensic
     
  
             


     
An Update on Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States - A Decade of Development at NIST
  
Presented by Robert Ramotowski
Forensic Science Research Program Manager
Special Programs Office
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

On 12 November 2019 in Washington DC, a one-day conference titled "AN UPDATE ON STRENGTHENING FORENSIC SCIENCE IN THE UNITED STATES: A DECADE OF DEVELOPMENT " commemorated the 10th anniversary of the pathbreaking National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) report “Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward,” a report that challenged the way forensic science is conducted and the way it is presented in the courts.

Sessions addressed developments during the past decade in the forensic sciences and in the courts, as well as in federal agencies and laboratories. The conference was jointly sponsored by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Innocence Project and NIST, in collaboration with NASEM.

Here is a link to a video of some of the conference (the last eight minutes of the 1 hour, 20 minute video include comments from Austin Hicklin and Ed German).   
 
Here is the AAAS Website for the conference.
   
           


     
White Paper - The Performance of Latent Print Examiners as Revealed by Eye Tracking Methodologies
by Dr. Shiquan Liu
Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic Science
China University of Political Science and Law
Beijing, China
and
Dr. Zhou Jie
East China Normal University
Shanghai, China
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Forensic Education Conference,
12 July - 16 August 2019 in Reno, Nevada
  
Comparison of fingerprint images for identification is a complex task requiring human experience and depends on perceptual learning processes. This project recorded the eye positions and eye fixation patterns of 15 expert latent print examiners, 15 primary latent print examiners and 15 novice participants. The project included two time limitation variants and three levels of comparison difficulty. The eye tracking results reflect where and how long participants looked at specific impressions areas while making decisions. 
  
     


   
Friction Ridge Resources
by Steve Brock, CLPE
Latent Fingerprint Examiner Supervisor
Santa Clara County Sheriff's Office
San Jose, California
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Forensic Education Conference during 12 July - 16 August 2019 in Reno, Nevada
  
This lecture includes a comprehensive list of some of the most accessible resources to aid latent print examiners in staying abreast of current literature, research, technology, training, and much more.
  

     


   
Captivating the Jury
by Hillary Daluz
Instructor, Tri-Tech Forensics
Forensic Specialist, Forensic Identification Services
Author, CRC Press
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Forensic Education Conference during 12 July - 16 August 2019 in Reno, Nevada
 
This lecture examines expert testimony from a juror's perspective and discusses methods for captivating any jury. Have you ever testified as an expert witness only to notice the jurors' eyes glazed over? Is juror #4 taking notes, or doodling? In order to be successful expert witnesses, and thus successful forensic scientists, we must be able to educate the jurors who have the responsibility of determining the veracity and weight of our opinions. This lecture examines expert testimony from a juror's perspective and discusses methods for captivating any jury.
  
        


   
AFIS: How to Get More Hits
by Brianne Breedlove
Napa County Sheriff’s Office
Napa, California
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Forensic Education Conference during 12 July - 16 August 2019 in Reno, Nevada
   
These slides cover various ideas about AFIS searching procedures, methods of testing those procedures and suggestions for quality assurance measures to ensure procedures are consistently effective over time.

  
     


   

12 Aug 2019 IAI
                                            Conference Image
Click the above image to see a panoramic image of the more than 1,300 IAI delegates at the opening ceremony if the IAI Conference on 12 August 2019.
      


               
A Note for FBI NGI Users...
One of the most valuable pieces of fingerprint-related information shared at the 2018 International Association for Identification Conference involves FBI Lab and CJIS research about about NGI latent print search result candidate scores. At the IAI Conference in San Antonio, FBI Latent Print Examiner Kyle Tom explained that preliminary research showed that when the matching scores of the #1 and #2 candidates have a difference of 1,250 or more, 83.5% of the time it will be an identification.
  
This is important because it means all agencies should consider implementing a policy that any such 1,250 or more difference in NGI candidate responses should require review by more than one examiner - either because the first examiner made an identification, or because there is an increased chance of an erroneous exclusion. Hopefully, the FBI will publish research on this topic in the future.
  
Some agencies embrace the opinion that allowing examiners to see the matching scores in candidate lists biases them and should be precluded. The current chair of the OSAC Friction Ridge Subcommittee AFIS Best Practices Task Group (Mike French) and I are both of the opinion that AFIS matching scores are an important objective measurement which can lend valuable information to the examination process and aid quality assurance.

 
- Ed German
Certified Latent Print Examiner, IAI
Certified Biometrics Professional, IEEE
             
      


               
Current Trends in Legal Challenges to Fingerprint Evidence
by Amy Watroba, Asst. State's Attorney
Forensic Science Unit
Cook County State's Attorney's Office
Chicago, Illinois
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas
   
These slides address recent types of legal challenges to latent print evidence, what you can expect from defense attorneys, and much more.

Ms. Watroba supports prosecutors in the Cook County (Chicago) area, but welcomes inquiries from latent print examiners and prosecutors anywhere. Her contact details are on the last slide.

         
           


               
FBI Next Generation Identification
by William G. McKinsey
FBI CJIS Biometric Services Section Chief
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
How does the FBI perform 300,000 searches per day against 140 million fingerprint records with superb accuracy? This informative update describes NGI's improved performance with additional modality implementations (face and iris) and new services. Many US state and local forensic scientists consider the FBI's NGI system as America's most important and valuable crime-solving asset.

             
      


       
IAI Latent Print Certification Board Update- 2018
by Stephanie Howard, CLPE
Ontario Provincial Police
LPCB Chair
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
This excellent presentation updates activities of the IAI's LPCB during the past year, including details about test impressions which caused decertification of examiners (8% failure rate).

Discussion after the presentation included recommendations by many CLPEs present to cease decertification due to one missed ident (in the same manner that not identifying all impressions during initial certification testing is not a failure). The LPCB explained they will take the recommendations received during the meeting (and all other communications) under consideration.
 
       
Print missed often
                                            during recertification
                                            testing
Click on the above image to see a larger version of the print "missed" most often during recertification testing.            
      


        
Universal Latent Workstation (ULW) in the Next Generation Identification (NGI) World v6.67
by Melissa Halpenny
FBI CJIS 
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
Everything you need to know about updated features in the FBI's version 6.67 (AKA 6.6.7) of ULW. The modern image quality metrics, unique comparison tool and other features make the software valuable even to forensic experts (latent print examiners) who do not search the FBI's national database. Slide 20 includes links for software download by authorized agencies/personnel, including foreign offices/personnel from most countries.

             
      


    
Small Agency Latent Print AFIS Capabilities in 2018
by Ron Smith, CLPE and Ed German, CLPE
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
Hundreds of latent print examiners at small agencies throughout America are unable to search unsolved case latent prints in the FBI's national database. In the nation's fifth largest state (Illinois), very few local agency latent print examiners can search latent prints at the FBI... meaning months or years of turn-around time before examination begins on evidence they submit to Illinois' overworked (and under-financed) state crime labs.

Additionally, more than half of latent print examiners surveyed who have current access through state or regional networks desire to be able to submit latent prints directly to the FBI via email (an avenue which was shut-off about three years ago for most agencies to even explore ).

Some believe the major AFIS vendors are pushing back against agencies being able to directly search the FBI without buying $30K to $50K terminals to route through the same AFIS vendor's state systems. Other experts see push-back from state law enforcement to allow local agencies to circumvent their networks (electronic or crime lab snail-mail) even though directly searching the FBI would often solve investigations faster and overall reduce criminal activity in the impacted jurisdictions.

Click here to see a PNG file displaying all the small agency responses. Depending on your browser,
you may need to click on a small magnifying glass icon or otherwise zoom in to increase the image width to a legible view. A few survey outliers seemed to list the CSI unit or investigative Division population in lieu of the total law enforcement agency number of employees, but most of the participants' responses seemed copacetic.
  

      


        
AFIS Training Practices: Swiss Precision - American Cowboy
by Kurt Aebersold and Carey Hall, CLPE
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
This presentation addresses the well-ordered Swiss AFIS training program (under one organization) versus the myriad approaches happening in the American AFIS environment.

             
      


      
Benefits of a Regional or Local AFIS
by David Tivin, CLPE and Neil Runte
 
Presented at the International Association for Identification Annual Educational Conference during 29 July - 3 August 2018 in San Antonio, Texas, USA
   
These industry presentation slides by Gemalto Cogent and the Westchester, Ohio Police Department outline some of the reasons hundreds of local agencies in America utilize local or regional AFIS systems to accomplish timely and accurate crime solving not always possible through state and federal systems.

             
      



DNA or Latent Prints? Or Both?

by Raymond A, Jorz, FFS, Senior Fingerprint/Firearms Examiner
  and
Karen M. Zavarella, Ph.D., Forensic Analyst

Presented at the CUGI Annual Educational Conference - 30 Oct-1 Nov 2017

These slides include information about how to successfully harvest both latent print and DNA evidence from the same specimens/surfaces.

The collection of DNA from latent print ridge detail by peeling open tape or hinge lifters in the lab, and from cyanoacrylate-developed ridge detail, and other evidence scenarios are addressed.

The need for sterile, single-use brushes and powders is addressed, along with their study results about how little DNA cross-contamination they found upon analyzing brushes/powder used at multiple (many) crime scenes.
             
      


      
Testimony Issues in a Post-PCAST World
November 2017 by Rachelle Babler, CLPE

Presented at the CUGI Annual Educational Conference - 30 Oct-1 Nov 2017
 
These slides address some of the issues and concerns for testifying in modern times, when Defense knows there is a need for transparency in reports and testimony to comply with current standards, guidelines and best practices.

The slides also address the PCAST report error of not considering the clerical errors (as much as 35 of 42 answers) in the Miami Dade study; and the fact PCAST ignored that 100% of errors in the Miami Dade and FBI/Noblis Black Box studies were caught during subsequent verification actions.
             
      


      
  
Unusual, Genius and Stupid Tactics for More Fingerprint and Face Identifications (2017 Update)
by Ed German, CLPE
 
Presented at the CUGI Annual Educational Conference - 30 Oct-1 Nov 2017
   
This presentation outlines numerous options to consider for identifying more persons in current cases, and some cold cases, by working smarter (not harder) to balance accuracy, timely support and thoroughness. 

             
      


    
Latent Print Report Appendix

October 2017 by Ed German, CLPE
 
Attaching an appendix at the end of latent print reports may help with transparency in communicating limitations, methods and overall information.

Here is a sample Latent Print Report Appendix. This appendix is used by the Macon County (Illinois) Sheriff's Office (MCSO).

The MCSO appendix is modeled a
fter an FBI Lab Latent Print Report appendix, but with FBI-specific references modified to include SWGFAST, etc., documents.

The FBI Lab Latent Print Report appendix is excerpted (pages 5 through 7) from the online document here.
             
      


          

A Review of Recently Published Fingerprint Research (2016-2017)
by Robert Ramotowski, US Secret Service

Presented at the International Association for Identification 102nd Annual Educational Conference - August 2017
   
Another valuable annual review of friction ridge research publications.

 
                    


  

Validation in ISO 17025 Accredited Laboratories – Policy Guidance and a Recent Example of a Validation Study 
by Robert Ramotowski, US Secret Service

Presented at the International Association for Identification 102nd Annual Educational Conference - August 2017
   
This presentation includes information about how to structure validation studies for common processes (e.g., ninhydrin) as well as novel methods. An example of a recent study conducted in the presenter's laboratory is included.



   


  

Old vs. New Fingerprint Information Exchange
by Michaela Spankova, Stefania Bohmerova, Dusan Mikulaj Institute of Forensic Science, Slovak Republic  

Poster presentation at the International Association for Identification 102nd Annual Educational Conference - August 2017
   
This presentation addresses the little known pioneering work of the Denmark Police who initiated the world's first electronic encoding of fingerprint minutiae (incorporating some features of the modified Henry classification system) facilitating remote electronic identification (confirmation that minutiae corresponded) and exclusion.

Best viewed by downloading to scroll-down through the individual slides.

The NIST (NBS) 1969 technical note reviewing Jörgensen's system is online here. The 1922 English version of a book describing Jörgensen's "Distant Identification" system is online here.
 
       


  

Enhancing the Cyanoacrylate Fuming Method of Latent Prints via Coupling the Effects of Temperature and Humidity
by Leondra S. Lawson-Johnson and Mark Dadmun, Univ of Tennessee 

Poster presentation at the International Association for Identification 102nd Annual Educational Conference - August 2017
   
This presentation addresses the effects of various temperature and humidity combinations over time for the development of latent prints. Ambient development conditions (not artifically increased humidity) were shown to be optimal in this study. The presentation diagram shows a fuming cabinet with specimens positioned above the heated cyanoacrylate.
 
Best viewed by downloading to scroll-down through the individual slides.

 
   


    

IMPROVING THE RIGOR OF THE LATENT PRINT EXAMINATION PROCESS
PhD Thesis by Austin Hicklin
 
Now publicly available, this interesting and informative document details past, current and future developments, activities and ideas impacting the quality and thoroughness of latent print examination work in the demanding environment of the modern world. 

                         


 

Get the Latest Version of Universal Latent Print Workstation (ULW 6.6.3 )... Even if you do not currently submit latent print searches directly to the FBI, you may Use ULW Extended Feature Set capabilities to help with casework documentation of Level 1, 2 and 3 information.  ULW now includes an offline comparison tool for use even if you have no AFIS.
  - ULW Brochure
 


 
 

Development of Latent Fingermarks from Difficult Surfaces by Laser Light Sources
by Shiquan Liu, PhD
Institute of Evidence Law and Forensic Science China University of Political Science and Law
Presented at the International Association for Identification
101st Annual Educational Conference - August 2016
   
This presentation explains successful laser development and visualization techniques applied to difficult surfaces, including bricks, stone, wood, train tickets and cloth. The presentation includes contributions from Zhongliang Mi, Weisi Cai, and Brian Dalrymple. 
                       


  
ENFSI Best Practice Manual for Fingerprint Examination
by Maj. Aldo Mattei, PhD
RIS Carabinieri, Italy
Presented at the International Association for Identification
101st Annual Educational Conference - August 2016
   
This presentation addresses the Best Practice Manual for Fingerprint Examination issued by the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI). The manual considers fingerprint examination from the receipt of items into a laboratory to the delivery of a report as a seamless and interdependent process. It does not consider the recovery of fingermarks from the crime scene, although much of the information within the visualization chapter is relevant. The full manual is online
here.
                    


  
The Strength of Conclusions
by Michelle Triplett, CLPE
King County, Washington
Presented at the International Association for Identification
101st Annual Educational Conference - August 2016
   
This presentation discusses a more accurate and transparent approach for arriving at, and reporting, results. The full published paper addressed by the presentation is online
here.  
          


    
A Review of Recently Published Fingerprint Research
by Robert Ramotowski, US Secret Service
Presented at the International Association for Identification
101st Annual Educational Conference - August 2016
   
This presentation provides a brief overview of a selection of articles published since mid-2015.  
          


    
Validation Studies in ISO 17025 Accredited Laboratories
by Robert Ramotowski, US Secret Service
Presented at the International Association for Identification
101st Annual Educational Conference - August 2016
   
This presentation addresses key elements of Level I, II and III validation procedures, including documentation.  
          


           
New Paradigm for Fingerprint
Reporting Without Individualization

by Henry Swofford, Chief Latent Print Unit
US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory
Presented during a Forensic Technology Center of Excellence webinar on 14 July 2016

In November 2015, the Defense Forensic Science Center (DFSC) issued an Information Paper announcing the decision to cease using the terms “individualization” and “identification” in latent print technical reports and expert witness testimony. This presentation explained the reasoning behind the new reporting language of the DFSC. 

For over 100 years, fingerprint evidence has been used as a valuable tool for the criminal justice system.  Relying on the generalized premise of “uniqueness”, the forensic community has regarded fingerprint evidence as nearly infallible having the capacity to “individualize” the source of a fingerprint impression to a single individual.  While the uniqueness of a complete record of friction ridge skin detail is generally undisputed, the extension of that premise to partial and degraded impressions has become a central issue of debate.  Nevertheless, forensic science laboratories routinely use the terms “individualization” and “identification” in technical reports and expert witness testimony to express an association of a partial impression to a specific known source. 
 
Over the last several years, there has been growing criticism among the scientific and legal communities regarding the use of such terms to express source associations which rely on expert interpretation.  The crux of the criticism is that these terms imply absolute certainty and infallibility to the fact-finder which has not been demonstrated by available scientific data.  As a result, several authoritative scientific organizations have recommended forensic science laboratories not to report or testify, directly or by implication, to a source attribution to the exclusion of all others in the world or to assert 100% infallibility and state conclusions in absolute terms when dealing with population issues.  Consequently, the traditional paradigm of reporting latent fingerprint conclusions with an implication of absolute certainty to a single source has been challenged.  The underlying basis for the challenge pertains to the logic applied during the interpretation of the evidence and the framework by which that evidence is articulated.  By recognizing the subtle, yet non-trivial differences in the logic, the fingerprint community may consider an alternative framework to report fingerprint evidence to ensure the certainties are not over or understated.
       


   
Out of the Frye-ing pan and into the Fire
by Francis P. Senese
Presented at the Illinois Division, International Association for Identification's (IAI) 54th Annual Educational Conference - April 2016

This presentation details historical background and other important factors to consider for Daubert, Frye and similar scientific process challenge hearings. 
       


  
Transmogrification  - Surgical incisions and rotation of fingerprint focal point areas (e.g., cores, delta) before suturing.
        


      
      
Automated Face & FP Criminal Justice Resources
by Ed German
Presented at the Illinois Division, International Association for Identification's (IAI) 54th Annual Educational Conference - April 2016

This presentation details face and fingerprint repositories US law enforcement can leverage today to solve more crime... (even if they have no in-house face experts).
   
  


 
   
FBI's Biometric Center of Excellence
by Nick Megna, Unit Chief, Biometric Center of Excellence, FBI CJIS, Clarksburg, West Virginia
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI) 100th International Educational Conference - August 2015

This presentation details current activities and future plans involving FBI biometric projects including fingerprint, face, iris and voice modalities.

     


    
A Review of Recently Published Fingerprint Research
by Robert Ramotowski
Presented at the International Association for Identification (IAI) 100th International Educational Conference - August 2015

This presentation provides a partial overview of forensic science articles appearing in (non-IAI) publications during 2014-2015.

   


    
A Possible Model for R&D – Maintaining the “Scientist" in the Forensic Scientist
by Eliot Springer, Deputy Director NYPD Police Laboratory, New York City, NY
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI) 99th International Educational Conference - August 2014

This presentation addresses obstacles and novel solutions to increase research and development in the modern forensic science laboratory environment. 
   
  


   
Improving Morale, Opening Lines of Communication, and Keeping the Criminalist Engaged
by Eliot Springer, Deputy Director NYPD Police Laboratory, New York City, NY
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI) 99th International Educational Conference - August 2014

This presentation explains how implementing a variety of outside-the-box ordinary, unusual, and fun activities can improve the flow of communications, reduce stress, improve productivity and provide other benefits.
     
  


 
IT Project in Poland Supporting LP Development on Difficult Porous and Non-Porous Surfaces
by the Central Forensic Laboratory in Warsaw and the Police Academy in Szczytno, Poland

Poster presentation at the International Association for Identification's (IAI) 99th International Educational Conference - August 2014
  
This poster from S. Zubanski, A. Tyzwa, T. Szcepanski, K. Klemczak and U. Wieckiewicz outlines the planned development of software cataloguing and documenting validated processes for latent print development on difficult surfaces.  Additionally, IT development will include creation of a comprehensive electronic infrastructure supporting forensic units with modern software solutions for real world conditions. The project is supported by The National Centre for Research and Development.
   
  


 
       
Fingermark Visualisation Manual
by Helen Bandey, PhD
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI) 99th International Educational Conference - August 2014
  
The presentation explained and demonstrated the automated, interactive fingerprint visualization manual.  (These slides are not interactive, but include screen shots of sample pages from various sections.)

This manual replaces the widely used "Manual of Fingerprint Development Techniques." It has been vastly revised and extended and it is presented in a new style to reflect advances in both science and operational practice. 

The new manual has been implemented across all UK police forces. Others may access the electronic manual from sources such as here
 
     


   
Administrative Decisions within the Universal Latent Workstation Software
by Patricia Mason, Training Instructor, FBI CJIS
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI)
99th International Educational Conference - August 2014
 
This presentation explains new features of the FBI's newest (soon to be released) ULW software.  New capabilities include civil database searches, a direct email interface (still being developed), Next Generation Identification (NGI) interface capabilities, and much more.
 
  


   
Understanding Digital Image Processing
by Allison Loll, PhD, CLPE
Presented at the International Association for Identification's (IAI)
99th International Educational Conference - August 2014

 
This presentation (A Look Behind the Scenes: Understanding Digital Imaging Processing) addresses important aspects of digital imaging, including accurate and complete answers for image processing-related questions in court.

 
 


   
Conducting Forensic Science Research Projects
by Robert Ramotowski
Presented
at the International Association for Identification's (IAI)
99th International Educational Conference - August 2014

Topics addressed include effective planning, research, design, conduct, documentation and publication of forensic science research.

   


   
Latent Print Research Projects
by Robert Ramotowski
Presented
at the International Association for Identification (IAI)
99th International Educational Conference - August 2014
 
This presentation covers a variety of US Secret Service research, including the following

- Developing Latent Prints on Coated Papers

- Developing Latent Prints on Stone Papers

- Impact of Latent Print Reagents on Ink Analysis

- Processing Business Envelopes with Polystyrene Windows

- Effect of Acidifying Ninhydrin on Latent Print Development
   
 


   
A Review of Recently Published Fingerprint Research
by Robert Ramotowski
Presented at the International Association for Identification (IAI)
99th International Educational Conference - August 2014

It is difficult for most latent print examiners to keep up with articles published in so many different journals. This presentation provides a brief overview of a selection of articles published since 2013.
   



AADHAAR   

World's Largest Database

With over 200 million fingerprint, face and iris biometric records.  UIAI  plans to collect as many as 600 million multi-modal records.  India's Unique Identification project is also known as Aadhaar, a word meaning "the foundation" in several Indian languages.  Aadhaar is a voluntary program, with the ambitious goal of eventually providing reliable national ID documents for most of India's 1.2 billion residents.

With a database larger than any other in the world, Aadhaar's ability to leverage automated fingerprint and iris technology enables rapid and reliable searching and identification impossible to accomplish with just fingerprint technology in such a large system, especially when searching children and elderly residents' biometric records.


 

The Philosophy of Friction Ridge Examination ...an interesting presentation by Boyd Baumgartner.  Here is a link to other vimeo presentations Boyd has created. 

 


Tips, Tricks and Best Kept Secrets (Universal Latent Workstation and NGI) presented 11 August 2011 by Jeff Carlyle at the 96th Annual IAI Conference .


Latent Print Development Techniques for Thermal Paper   presented 10 August 2011 by Aldo Mattei and Federico Cervelli at the 96th Annual IAI Conference.    
   


  
Chicken or the Egg: Process for Latent Prints or DNA First? 
presented 9 August 2011 by Diana Tabor and Karley Hujet at the 96th Annual IAI Conference.

   



Fingerprint Sourcebook now available here.  This is the sourcebook many of us have heard about (and worked on) in recent years.

 

NIST Pattern Evidence Home Page


NAS Report:  Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward

  

Access the 41-page Free Executive Summary here.

 

Report Description from the National Academies Press

"Scores of talented and dedicated people serve the forensic science community, performing vitally important work. However, they are often constrained by lack of adequate resources, sound policies, and national support. It is clear that change and advancements, both systematic and scientific, are needed in a number of forensic science disciplines to ensure the reliability of work, establish enforceable standards, and promote best practices with consistent application. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward provides a detailed plan for addressing these needs and suggests the creation of a new government entity, the National Institute of Forensic Science, to establish and enforce standards within the forensic science community.

The benefits of improving and regulating the forensic science disciplines are clear: assisting law enforcement officials, enhancing homeland security, and reducing the risk of wrongful conviction and exoneration. Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States gives a full account of what is needed to advance the forensic science disciplines, including upgrading of systems and organizational structures, better training, widespread adoption of uniform and enforceable best practices, and mandatory certification and accreditation programs."

 

News Release on the report.

  

Access the report here

NAS Report image

Webcast of 18 Feb 2009 NAS briefing.

 


 

 


 

Latent Prints: A Perspective on the State of the Science

An October 2009 FBI.gov online commentary by eight of the FBI Laboratory's senior Fingerprint Specialists/Latent Print Examiners

 


Identifying the Needs of the Forensic Sciences Community  Interesting documents online at the National Academies of Science Committee on Science, Technology and Law 


 

 

FBI Slides image

Presented by the FBI Laboratory at the IAI Conference on 18 August 2008

Right-click and download before opening these large files:

PDF Slides (2.4 Mb)

PowerPoint Slides (3.1 Mb)

 


See new Standards and Draft Standards from SWGFAST   


 

Position Paper on Latent Fingerprint Identification from the IAI...  29 Nov 2007, from the International Association for Identification.


 

ACID YELLOW Development of Bloody Latent Prints on Dark Surfaces... 
27
Jul 2007 IAI presentation, courtesy of the US Army Criminal Investigation Laboratory.

Right-click here to download the large PowerPoint version of this presentation, then open on your computer.

Right-click here to download the large PDF version of this presentation, then open on your computer.


Ninhydrin Development without expensive or dangerous solventsResearch from Korea...


Major Case Prints DRAFT Card 
A new card for recording all finger joints/tips and thenar (base of palm) areas was drafted by SWGFAST

See images of the new card here.
 
The new card is intended to facilitate comprehensive record finger and palm prints (AKA Major Case Prints) when fully completed with existing FBI Fingerprint Card
(Form FD-249 front and back ) and FBI Palmprint Card (Form FD-884 front and back ) records.   The new card form number is expected to be FD-884A.

 
Major case prints standardization will assist AFIS as more vendors design systems for handling all friction ridge areas of the hands.  

 



 

The Madrid Error Prints, including Algerian Ouhnane Daoud's record print, are online here .

The US Department of Justice's March 2006 documents related to the Madrid Error are online at
https://oig.justice.gov/sites/default/files/archive/special/s0601/PDF_list.htm
(Recommend downloading these files before opening from your computer).

Among other findings, the 330 page report criticizes the FBI Laboratory's Examination SOP, and SWGFAST guidelines, as repetitive, vague and general.  

The five-page conclusion from the report is available here
(much smaller file) .  

 
 

" The Myth of Goats : How many people have fingerprints that are hard to match?"
by Austin Hicklin, Craig Watson and Brad Ulery

Published as a NIST Interagency Report, NISTIR 7271


 



7 Sep 2005 Massachusetts Supreme Court Oral Arguments (swf file type) about Admissibility of Simultaneous Impressions RE: Commonwealth v. Patterson


Amicus Brief by Cole, Habers, et al.

Additional details at clpex.com


New Hampshire June 2005 Daubert Challenge  


More than Zero: Accounting for Error in Latent Fingerprint Identification
by Simon A. Cole, 95 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 985 (2005). 


   


 

 


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Faulds Monument
Dr. Henry Faulds Monument in Japan

    

13 March 2002 Order from Judge Pollak
Judge Pollak Reversed Himself
US v LLERA PLAZA

Judge Pollak Reverses Himself
The Honorable Louis H. Pollak wrote:
Based on the foregoing considerations, I have concluded that arrangements which, subject to careful trial court oversight, are felt to be sufficiently reliable in England, ought likewise to be found sufficiently reliable in the federal courts of the United States, subject to similar measures of trial court oversight. In short, I have changed my mind. "Wisdom too often never comes, and so" - as Justice Frankfurter admonished himself and every judge - "one ought not to reject it merely because it comes late." (7 January 2002 Court Decision partially against fingerprints Court Decision )

PA v. Vikara, Convicted After Starrs' Testimony
Prof. James Starrs was called as an expert in the methodology of fingerprint comparison, but renounced much of his written report during cross-examination.  Hearing was October 22, 2001... Defendant convicted of 1st Degree Murder and Robbery... sentenced to death. Defendant died January 10, 2002 in the State Correctional Institute at Camp Hill, PA.

Notorious Daubert Challenge - Bin Laden's Terrorist Tried It
After his April 6, 2001 conviction, Ahmed Ressam was known to most of us as just another criminal who failed in his bid to exclude incriminating fingerprint evidence. As Paul Harvey would say, we now know the rest of the story... 
 
 

A Statement Regarding Am eri can News Shows and Articles about Fingerprint Evidence Credibility in Court...


 

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